Helpful things to remember.
- 1 Apache 2
- 2 Operating Systems
- 3 Archiving / Backup
- 4 Ports and Packages
- 5 Mail::Toaster Log Files
- 6 Bind IP Addresses to Network Interface
- 7 Creating a Virtual Web Host
- 8 Creating a Virtual Email Host
- 9 How-to: HTML Newsletters With Ezmlm-idx
- 10 Commands
- Windows 98
- Windows 2000 Server
- Windows XP
- Windows 2003 Server
- Gentoo (DELETED Gentoo info is not maintained and very outdated.)
- BSD Unix
Duplicity backs directories by producing encrypted tar-format volumes and uploading them to a remote or local file server.
Ports and Packages
- Determine currently installed ports
pkg_info # Complete list of packages pkg_info |grep pkgSearchTerm # List of packages that match search term
- Update ports tree
cvsup -g -L 2 /root/ports-supfile OR portsnap fetch update # More efficient and secure than cvsup # Requires some initialization, see the handbook
- Update source tree
cvsup -g -L 2 /root/source-supfile
- Interactively fix the package registry database
- Check for securiy vulnerabilities on installed ports and packages
- Upgrade a port and those ports dependent on it interactively
NOTE: Before upgrading a port, please read any applicable note on that port from the /usr/ports/UPDATING file. I review this file after running the no-execute test run.
portupgrade -n -r portname # No-execute test run portupgrade -i -r portname # Interactive update
- By default, portupgrade checks the Vulnerabilities database prior to upgrading. If there is a vulnerability, you are asked to update your ports tree. Sometimes, you may need to upgrade a port with still current vulnerabilities.
setenv DISABLE_VULNERABILITIES yes # Set environment variable (syntax depends on shell) echo DISABLE_VULNERABILITIES // Now run portupgrade as always
- Downgrade a port
// Install portdowngrade from ports tree make DEFAULT_CVS_SERVER="anoncvs@anoncvs1.FreeBSD.org:/home/ncvs" install clean // Interactively select version to downgrade to portdowngrade yourportname
Mail::Toaster Log Files
View today's sendlog.
cat /var/log/mail/2005/mm/dd/sendlog |tai64nlocal | less or tail -F /var/log/mail/2005/mm/dd/sendlog |tai64nlocal
View today's smtplog
cat /var/log/mail/2005/mm/dd/smtplog |tai64nlocal | less or tail -F /var/log/mail/2005/mm/dd/smtplog |tai64nlocal
The contents of /var/log/maillog will be anything sent to syslog.mail. Typically this includes vpopmail authentications (pop3, smtp-auth, smtp-submission), courier authentications (imap, imap-ssl, sqwebmail), and SpamAssassin's logs.
tail -F /var/log/maillog | tai64nlocal
These are the qmail-send logs. Look here for mail delivery issues.
tail -F /var/log/mail/send/current | tai64nlocal
These are the qmail-smtpd logs. By default, qmail-smtpd doesn't log anything. However, rblsmtpd and a few of our patches to qmail-smtpd do. In there you'll find all the blocked connections from rblsmtpd, any qregex rejections, chk-user rejections, and simscan rejections. Basically, you want to watch this guy if you are blocking something that you don't want to.
tail -F /var/log/mail/smtp/current | tai64nlocal
Bind IP Addresses to Network Interface
Add the initial IP address for a NIC
The NIC is represented by em0. It will differ on your computer.
ifconfig em0 18.104.22.168 netmask 255.255.255.0 route add default 22.214.171.124
Add to /etc/rc.conf
ifconfig_em0="inet 126.96.36.199 netmask 255.255.255.0" defaultrouter="188.8.131.52"
Add an alias IP address
ifconfig em0 inet 184.108.40.206 netmask 255.255.255.255 alias
Add to /etc/rc.conf
ifconfig_em0_alias0="inet 220.127.116.11 netmask 255.255.255.255" ifconfig_em0_alias1="inet 18.104.22.168 netmask 255.255.255.255" ifconfig_em0_alias2="inet 22.214.171.124 netmask 255.255.255.255"
Remove an alias IP address
ifconfig em0 inet 126.96.36.199 -alias
Restart the network services
I requested and received a block of IPs form my service provider. I ran the correct ifconfig commands to add the new IPs as aliases. They did't work. Could ping locallly but not from any other machine (well, I could ping 1 of the IPs but not the rest). Ran some dig and traceroutes on the IPs and they seemed to already be provisioned elsewhere.
Sent an email to my provider indicating the above. They replied saying that the IPs were unencumbered and the results of my dig and traceroute were just ghosts in the DNS.
Struggled and struggled. Tried all kinds of different combinations and tricks. Still got nowhere. Finally, asked my provider to setup the IPs on my server using one of their technicians at $XXX/hour.
After working on my machine for about an hour, the technician issued a different block of IPs and set those up instead. Of course those worked fine. The technician sent me an email stating that the original block was still encumbered in a VLAN that was not properly documented.
Trust your skills!
Find is a utility for finding all items that match your specifications in a directory tree. This command has many advanced options and may easily be used with xargs to perform actions on the found files.
# Find all files and chmod them find ./ -type f |xargs chmod a-x # chokes when filename contains spaces
# Find all files, terminate the filename with '\0', and chmod them find ./ -type f -print0 |xargs -0 chmod a-x
Dump is used to backup complete filesystems.
# Dump the /var filesystem to a file dump -0uLa -f /usr/dumpvar /var
Restore is used to restore filessytems backed up with dump.
# Interactively restore files from the dumpfile restore -if /backup/dumpfile
See Restore Usage for more examples
Tar is used to create archives, usually compressed. Some of the command strings may get rather complex. Here it is in its simplest form.
# Create a compressed archive name myarchive from the entire directory branch /home tar -czf myarchive /home # Extract myarchive to the current directory tar -xzf myarchive
See Tar Usage for more complex examples
pwd_mkdb creates db style password databases from a correctly formatted master.passwd file.
# Verify master.passwd format pwd_mkdb -C /etc/master.passwd # Update the databases pwd_mkdb /etc/master.passwd
SMTP Using Telnet
prompt:/> telnet smtpdomain.com 25 Connecting to smtpdomain.com. Escape character is '^]'. 220 smtpdomain.com helo mydomain.com 250 smtpdomain.com Hello mydomain.com mail from: firstname.lastname@example.org 250 OK rcpt to: email@example.com 250 Accepted data 354 Enter message, ending with "." on a line by itself Subject:Test Message This is a test message. . 250 OK id=10156jh quit 221 smtpdomain.com closing connection Connection closed by foreign host
Connect to USB Harddrive
mkdir /mnt/usb # Create dir unless already exists # Using a FAT32 formatted disk mount -t msdos /dev/da0s1 /mnt/usb # Using a UFS formatted disk mount -t ufs /dev/da0s1 /mnt/usb
Connect to NFS Drive
mkidr /mnt/mountname mount -t nfs -o -r=1024 192.168.1.2:/exportname /mnt/mountname
Test for Listening Ports
grep -hilnr 188.8.131.52 * h - suppress filename on multiple filename results i - ignore case l - print first filename match, then stop n - line numbers r - recurse directories /etc/rc.d/netif allows one to start or stop a specific interface /etc/rc.d/routing route -a route -n show route -n get 184.108.40.206 /etc/rc.d/routed
Convert between UNIX and DOS style text files.
unix2dos filename # Convert Unix style newlines to DOS style dos2unix filename # Convert DOS style newlines to Unix style
See the 10 largest files on a directory or partition.
du /partition_or_directory_name | sort -rn | head